# Linear Groups¶

EXAMPLES:

sage: GL(4,QQ)
General Linear Group of degree 4 over Rational Field
sage: GL(1,ZZ)
General Linear Group of degree 1 over Integer Ring
sage: GL(100,RR)
General Linear Group of degree 100 over Real Field with 53 bits of precision
sage: GL(3,GF(49,'a'))
General Linear Group of degree 3 over Finite Field in a of size 7^2

sage: SL(2, ZZ)
Special Linear Group of degree 2 over Integer Ring
sage: G = SL(2,GF(3)); G
Special Linear Group of degree 2 over Finite Field of size 3
sage: G.is_finite()
True
sage: G.conjugacy_classes_representatives()
(
[1 0]  [0 2]  [0 1]  [2 0]  [0 2]  [0 1]  [0 2]
[0 1], [1 1], [2 1], [0 2], [1 2], [2 2], [1 0]
)
sage: G = SL(6,GF(5))
sage: G.gens()
(
[2 0 0 0 0 0]  [4 0 0 0 0 1]
[0 3 0 0 0 0]  [4 0 0 0 0 0]
[0 0 1 0 0 0]  [0 4 0 0 0 0]
[0 0 0 1 0 0]  [0 0 4 0 0 0]
[0 0 0 0 1 0]  [0 0 0 4 0 0]
[0 0 0 0 0 1], [0 0 0 0 4 0]
)


AUTHORS:

• William Stein: initial version
• David Joyner: degree, base_ring, random, order methods; examples
• David Joyner (2006-05): added center, more examples, renamed random attributes, bug fixes.
• William Stein (2006-12): total rewrite
• Volker Braun (2013-1) port to new Parent, libGAP, extreme refactoring.

REFERENCES: See [KL1990] and [Car1972].

sage.groups.matrix_gps.linear.GL(n, R, var='a')

Return the general linear group.

The general linear group $$GL( d, R )$$ consists of all $$d \times d$$ matrices that are invertible over the ring $$R$$.

Note

This group is also available via groups.matrix.GL().

INPUT:

• n – a positive integer.
• R – ring or an integer. If an integer is specified, the corresponding finite field is used.
• var – variable used to represent generator of the finite field, if needed.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = GL(6,GF(5))
sage: G.order()
11064475422000000000000000
sage: G.base_ring()
Finite Field of size 5
sage: G.category()
Category of finite groups
sage: TestSuite(G).run()

sage: G = GL(6, QQ)
sage: G.category()
Category of infinite groups
sage: TestSuite(G).run()


Here is the Cayley graph of (relatively small) finite General Linear Group:

sage: g = GL(2,3)
sage: d = g.cayley_graph(); d
Digraph on 48 vertices
sage: d.plot(color_by_label=True, vertex_size=0.03, vertex_labels=False)  # long time
Graphics object consisting of 144 graphics primitives
sage: d.plot3d(color_by_label=True)  # long time
Graphics3d Object

sage: F = GF(3); MS = MatrixSpace(F,2,2)
sage: gens = [MS([[2,0],[0,1]]), MS([[2,1],[2,0]])]
sage: G = MatrixGroup(gens)
sage: G.order()
48
sage: G.cardinality()
48
sage: H = GL(2,F)
sage: H.order()
48
sage: H == G
True
sage: H.gens() == G.gens()
True
sage: H.as_matrix_group() == H
True
sage: H.gens()
(
[2 0]  [2 1]
[0 1], [2 0]
)

class sage.groups.matrix_gps.linear.LinearMatrixGroup_gap(degree, base_ring, special, sage_name, latex_string, gap_command_string, category=None)

The general or special linear group in GAP.

class sage.groups.matrix_gps.linear.LinearMatrixGroup_generic(degree, base_ring, special, sage_name, latex_string, category=None, invariant_form=None)
sage.groups.matrix_gps.linear.SL(n, R, var='a')

Return the special linear group.

The special linear group $$SL( d, R )$$ consists of all $$d \times d$$ matrices that are invertible over the ring $$R$$ with determinant one.

Note

This group is also available via groups.matrix.SL().

INPUT:

• n – a positive integer.
• R – ring or an integer. If an integer is specified, the corresponding finite field is used.
• var – variable used to represent generator of the finite field, if needed.

EXAMPLES:

sage: SL(3, GF(2))
Special Linear Group of degree 3 over Finite Field of size 2
sage: G = SL(15, GF(7)); G
Special Linear Group of degree 15 over Finite Field of size 7
sage: G.category()
Category of finite groups
sage: G.order()
1956712595698146962015219062429586341124018007182049478916067369638713066737882363393519966343657677430907011270206265834819092046250232049187967718149558134226774650845658791865745408000000
sage: len(G.gens())
2
sage: G = SL(2, ZZ); G
Special Linear Group of degree 2 over Integer Ring
sage: G.category()
Category of infinite groups
sage: G.gens()
(
[ 0  1]  [1 1]
[-1  0], [0 1]
)


Next we compute generators for $$\mathrm{SL}_3(\ZZ)$$

sage: G = SL(3,ZZ); G
Special Linear Group of degree 3 over Integer Ring
sage: G.gens()
(
[0 1 0]  [ 0  1  0]  [1 1 0]
[0 0 1]  [-1  0  0]  [0 1 0]
[1 0 0], [ 0  0  1], [0 0 1]
)
sage: TestSuite(G).run()